Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis

AD is a heterogeneous and highly prevalent form of eczema with only two approved biologic therapies, and impacts over 40 million patients in the US and 30 million in Europe . AD shares the common endotype of Type 2 inflammation with other cutaneous and respiratory diseases, and patients experience chronic, incessant itch, long term changes in skin barrier, sleep deprivation and a severe impact on overall quality of life. Allergic comorbidities such as asthma and rhinosinusitis are common, affecting up to 78% of all moderate-to-severe AD patients.

IL-4 and IL-13 are key cytokines that drive the inflammatory cascade underlying AD. Binding to the Type 2 receptor, IL-4 and IL-13 activate intracellular pathways in several cell types that:

  • induce the production of IgE in B cells
  • activate mast cells and prime them to detect IgE
  • induce migration of T cells and eosinophils to allergic inflammatory tissues
  • result in disruption of the skin barrier which allows the entrance of irritants and allergens

These inflammatory events eventually lead to skin lesions with lichenification, erythema and severe itch.

Click here to read more about atopic dermatitis through the National Eczema Association.